Chapter 13 Slide Show North And South

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Life in the south prior to the Civil War; new inventions, industry

Text of Chapter 13 Slide Show North And South

  • 1. Chapter 13 North and South 1820-1860
    • Section 1
  • The Norths Economy


  • Developed in 3 phases
  • 1-manufacturers made products by dividing the work up among workers
  • 1 would spin thread, 1 would weave etc.
  • 2-manufacturers built factories bringing specialized workers together
    • Products could be put together faster this way
    • -used machinery to do some of the work
  • 3-Power driven looms (more products in less time)


  • Mass production
  • -began in New England
  • -Elias Howe invented sewing machine in 1846
  • -by 1860 Northeasts 74000 factories produces 2/3 of the countries
  • manufactured goods (a lot in one place)

4. Elias Howes Sewing Machine 5. IMPROVED TRANSPORTATION

  • Construction crews built thousands of miles of new roads and canals between 1800-1850.
  • This allowed new shipping routes by connecting rivers and lakes
  • Railroads growth another way to transport goods

6. Steamboats and Steamships

  • Robert Fulton-1807 inventor of thesteamboat .Carried goods and people cheaply along inland waterways
  • Canal builders widened and deepened channel and canals, sparked development of cities like Cincinnati, Buffalo, Chicago

7. Steamboats 8.

  • Steam also used as a power source for ships to travel across the ocean.The Great Western sailed from US to Britain in 1838 (took sails in case it broke down!)

9. Steam Powered Ocean Liner

  • The Great Western

10. Clipper Ships

  • - improved sailing ships
  • sleek hulls, tall sails, 300 miles per day, they clipped time from long journeys. Cut sailing times in almost half.Famous ships Flying Cloud Sea Witch, Cutty Sark, Champion of the Seas

11. Clipper Ships

  • Flying CloudCutty Sark

12. Locomotives

  • Early trains were drawn by horses instead of engines (horsepower gets its name)
  • The Rocket was first steam powered train 1829 in England
  • Peter Cooper designed and built first American steam locomotive in 1830- Tom Thumb
  • Raced a horse drawn train and lost due to engine failure.
  • Steam powered engines improved over the next 10 years

13. The Race! 14.

  • Tracks -1840/3000 of track1860/31,000 of trackmainly in north and Midwest.
  • LinksNew York City/BuffaloPhiladelphia/PittsburgBaltimore/Wheeling Virginia

15. Moving Goods and People

  • past, Mississippi River only route to ship goods to other countries or to east coast
  • -then, east/west canals and RR allowed products like grain, live stock, dairy to move directly from Midwest to east, Cheaper way to transport
  • -since cheaper to transport, could sell cheaper
  • -populations grew in Midwest because of train transportation (cause)
  • Industries developed (effect)


  • Invention of Telegraph and Morse Code
  • Samuel Morse-American Inventor
  • Tried for 5 years to win support for his invention
  • $30000 from congress to build an experimental line from capitol to Baltimore
  • May 24,1844 he tapped out words What hath God Wrought from the US capitol, moments later the message was tapped back

17. Telegraph Machine 18.

  • Morse code a series of dots and dashes representing letters and numbers
  • By 1860 more than 50,000 miles of telegraph line strung

19. 20. 21. Invention of the Printing Press

  • 1846 steam cylinder printing press invented by Richard Hoe.(Cause)
  • Many newspapers began. (effect)

22. Richard Hoe

  • Steam Cylinder Rotary Press


  • Technology in Farming
  • Areas west of Mississippi created challenges in farming, prairie soil, matted soil, rocky soil, etc.
  • 3 inventions
  • 1- steel-tipped plow from John Deere in 1837 (wooden plows used before that)
  • 2- mechanical reaper sped up harvesting of wheat-1834 Cyrus McCormick (used handheld reapers before that)
  • 3- thresher separated grain from the stalk

24. John Deere

  • Steel-tipped Plow

25. Cyrus McCormick

  • Mechanical reaper

26. Thresher 27. Cash Crops

  • Midwest wheat in large quantities
  • Northeast and middle Atlantic fruits and vegetables (grew well in those soils)
  • North turned more to industry.

28. Section 2

  • The Norths People

29. Northern Factories

  • Early 1800s mills established inLowell,Massachusetts
    • Entire production process under one roof
      • the factory system
      • Produced items like textiles, shoes, watches, sewing machines, guns

30. Water run mill 31. Working Conditions

  • System worsened as it developed
    • Owners wanted longer hours from workers to produce more goods
    • Average work day was 11.4 hours
      • O-T-J accidents increased
    • Machinery did not have safety, protective gear around it
      • Losing fingers, broken bones, kids especially

32. Working Conditions cont

  • Hot and stifling in summer
    • Air conditioning not invented, machines emitted a lot of heat
  • Coldin the winter
    • No heat in the factories
  • Profits over worker comforts $$$
    • Jobs were few and far between
      • An unhappy worker was easily replaced
      • No laws existed to protect workers

33. Working the line 34. Lowell Mills

  • Built clean, simple lodging for employees
    • Tried to attract young, women workers to the factory
    • By 1840, practice ended
    • Wages were so low, many forced to live in slums near the factory

35. Lowell Girls 36. Attempts to Organize

  • 1830s workers began to organize
    • Wanted improved working conditions
    • Skilled workers formed trade unions
      • Organizations of workers with some trade or skill
      • Unskilled workers formed unions as well
    • Mid 1830s skilled workers strike
      • Refusing to work to put pressure on employees
        • Wanted higher wages
        • 10 hour work days
        • Formed the General Trades Union of New York

37. The Right to Strike

  • Early 1800s striking was illegal
    • Punishable by the law or loss of job
    • 1842 Massachusetts court ruled workers had the right to strike

38. African American Workers

  • Slavery disappeared from the North by 1820
  • Didnt mean everything was pie in the sky
    • Faced Racial prejudice & Discrimination
      • An unfair opinion on based on facts
      • Unfair treatment of a group
    • 1821 white, non-landowning males could vote
      • African American males could not
      • African Americans could not attend public school
      • Barred from public facilities
      • Forced into separate, segregated schools and hospitals
      • Had to take the lowest paying jobs

39. Success Stories for African Americans

  • Successful Businessmen
    • Henry Boyd Owned a furniture Co. in Cincinnati
    • John B. Russworm-foundedFreedoms Journal
      • 1 stAfrican American newspaper
    • Macon B. Allen 1 stlawyer
    • Most African Americans were extremely poor
      • Better off than been