Revision notes Higher and Intermediate 2 Product design Safety and the environment You will be asked to consider safety aspects in the following contexts: Safety and the consumer Safety and the manufacturer Safety and the environment In answer to any question always refer to the product in the question and give clear examples. USafety and the consumer Answers should include: the weight of the product, warning labels, advice on carrying and storing. Moving parts, which may trap or injure the user, abrasive surfaces and good surface finishes. Choice of materials, which will not poison or contaminate. Good electrical insulation, which meets current European safety standards. Quality control during and after production. USafety and the manufacturer Answer should include: Staff training, use of appropriate machinery, safety inspections by government agencies. Responsibility for the safe storage and disposal of materials, consideration to be given to air, water and soil pollution. Consideration given to the energy used in the manufacture of products. USafety and the environment (social responsibility) Responsibility for the safe storage and disposal of materials, consideration to be given to air, water and soil pollution. Consideration given to the energy used in the manufacture of products. FB/MGS/09

09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Embed Size (px)



Citation preview

Page 1: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Revision notes Higher and Intermediate 2 Product design

Safety and the environment You will be asked to consider safety aspects in the following contexts:

Safety and the consumer Safety and the manufacturer Safety and the environment

In answer to any question always refer to the product in the question and give clear examples. USafety and the consumer Answers should include: the weight of the product, warning labels, advice on carrying and storing. Moving parts, which may trap or injure the user, abrasive surfaces and good surface finishes. Choice of materials, which will not poison or contaminate. Good electrical insulation, which meets current European safety standards. Quality control during and after production. USafety and the manufacturer Answer should include: Staff training, use of appropriate machinery, safety inspections by government agencies. Responsibility for the safe storage and disposal of materials, consideration to be given to air, water and soil pollution. Consideration given to the energy used in the manufacture of products. USafety and the environment (social responsibility) Responsibility for the safe storage and disposal of materials, consideration to be given to air, water and soil pollution. Consideration given to the energy used in the manufacture of products. FB/MGS/09

Page 2: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Manufacturing systems (methods of manufacture)

Manufacturing systems refers mainly to the volume of products manufactured. The choice of manufacturing systems are as follows:

Mass production Batch production One offs JIT (Just in time) Ghent chart

UMass production Many thousands of copies of a product are made. Mass production suggests that there is a large, probably international market, for this product. It might be the case that the product is sold at low cost, Biro pens for example. Tooling and machine setting might be initially very expensive, but costs are recuperated by wide distribution and mass marketing. Mass production systems are usually automated and use the minimum of labour. Automated systems are more reliable and cost effective than using manual labour. Mass production systems will probably use CAD / CAM systems. UBatch production Lesser quantities of a product are made, usually in hundreds. For example garden furniture. The availability and distribution of products might be limited to particular stores and seasons. The method of manufacture might be semi automated, using Jigs and fixtures to assist the craftsman manufacture the product. It is likely that the products will be hand finished. This attention to detail will be reflected in the cost to the consumer. FB/MGS/09

Page 3: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Manufacturing systems (methods of manufacture) UOne offs A limited number of high quality products are made to order. The product might be unique, for example a reception desk in the new Scottish parliament. The demand for high quality will be expensive to the customer. The product will undoubtedly be made by a skilled craftsperson using the minimum of automation. It might be very difficult to replace or maintain such a unique product. UJIT To reduce the cost of storage the Japanese have a developed a system which delivers materials, Just in time (JIT). If materials are delivered to the factory just in time for manufacture then taken away at the point of production, then labour and storage costs can be reduced. This economic efficiency can be passed onto the customer, in low cost products. FB/MGS/09

Page 4: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

0BUGhent chart Planning for success is essential for any manufacturer. How the product will be made is worked out in advance of beginning production. Often this is done on a Ghent chart. A Ghent chart plans out what must be done against the time taken to do it. Look at this example: Process Job Time A Varnish the box 1 hour B Sand the box 2 hours C Make the box 3 hours D Get supply of timber 4 hours E Make lid 2 hours F Varnish lid 1 hour Below shows how all of these stages can be illustrated and put into a logical order. Ghent Chart


Information found from the chart:

1. Total time taken = 12 hours. 2. Time saved if lid started when box was varnished = 1 hour.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of working hours

Page 5: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Production methods

Production methods, directly refers to the machining and manual production of products. Depending on which Manufacturing system (method of manufacture) is required will determine the choice of Production methods.

Extrusion Injection moulding Compression moulding Vacuum forming Blow moulding Metal Casting Piercing and Blanking Press forming metal Welding Steam bending wood CAD / CAM

UExtrusion: Plastic For making continuous lengths, for example curtain rails. Materials: thermoplastics, polypropene (pp). Suitable for mass production of products.

1. Plastic granules are fed into the machine through a hopper. 2. The plastic is heated and forced through a die. 3. A long continuous length is produced and is trimmed to size.


Page 6: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UExtrusion: Metal For making continuous lengths, for example domestic water or gas pipes. Ideally suited to mass production. Materials: Copper, Aluminium alloys. Remarks: Uniform thickness, uniform section, light weight, easily bent.

1. A billet (A block of metal) is put into a ramming machine. The heated billet of either copper or aluminium is forced under pressure and heat, through a die to form the continuous length.

2. Reverse ramming will produce a hollow extrusion.


Hollow tube



Page 7: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UInjection moulding: Thermoplastics Ideally suited to the mass production of plastic buckets, bins and storage boxes. Thermoplastic granules are fed into a hopper and are forced under pressure and heat, into a mould. The plastic is injected into the mould and the product is quickly made. The mould is opened, the product removed and the process starts again. Materials: Polypropene (pp), Polythene (HDPE) Remarks: Injection marks, push pin marks, Ribs. UCompression moulding A similar process to injection moulding, though this time a slug (block) of a thermosetting plastic is used. This process is used to make light switch covers and similar products that need thermosetting plastics.

Materials: Urea formaldehyde. Remarks: Smooth high quality surfaces, intricate detailing, flash edges. FB/MGS/09

Page 8: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UVacuum forming: Thermoplastics A thin layer of a thermoplastic is heated, becomes flexible (plastic) and is drawn down into a pattern (mould) under vacuum pressure. This is a very quick, economical and reliable process. Used to form food packaging, inserts for drawers and vehicle parts. Ideally suited to mass production. Material: Styrene, acrylic sheet. Remarks: Rounded corners, tapered edges, smooth surfaces, good surface detail. UBlow moulding: Thermoplastics As the title suggests air is blown into a hollow tube of plastic. The plastic tube is nipped closed at one end and as the air pressure is increased the hot plastic tube known as the Parison, then forms to the shape of the mould. This is a very quick, economical and reliable process, typically used to form plastic bottles. Materials: Polypropene (pp), styrene. Remarks: Uniform thickness, Mould separation lines, flash lines and clamping point.


Page 9: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Metal casting USand casting: One offs or batch production Where complex heavy shapes in metal have to be formed and it is not practical to cut out the form from a solid, then casting is used. A source metal, Aluminium alloy for example is heated and melted into liquid form. The hot metal is poured into a sand filled flask. The sand contains the impression of the project to be made and it is this impression that is filled with the hot metal. When cooled the shape is broken out of the sand and finished by hand. Sand casting is not suitable for mass production. Materials: Aluminium alloy, Brass, Lead. Remark: Fillets, ribs, Flash, Runner riser (sprue pins), flask, Due to poor surface finish needs machine finishing. UDie casting: Mass production Where many copies need to be produced a die or solid moulding box is used to form the casting. In this case the molten metal is pushed into the mould with a plunger. When cooled the dies are opened and the casting removed. Advantages: This process can be repeated as soon as the casting has cooled and is ideally suited to mass production. Remarks: Flash, injection point, ribs, good quality surface finish, good detailing. FB/MGS/09

Bike brake levers

Page 10: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UPiercing and blanking: Sheet metalwork 2D shapes can be sheared out of a metal sheet using a high pressure ram. When a simple profile is cut out it is referred to as Blanking. Where a hole or space needs to be made in the blank a secondary but similar process is used. This process is known as Piercing. Both piercing and blanking can be automated to speed up the process of mass manufacture. Remarks: These process’ are quick, leave little waste and little finishing. UPress forming metal A similar metal process to piercing and blanking, though on this occasion the sheet metal is bent into a 3D form. Once again a ram is used to press the sheet metal into a hollow former. Materials: Steel, Aluminium alloy, copper, brass. Remarks: These process’ are quick, leave little waste and little finishing. Ideally suited to mass production. Though many of these mass production process’ will be expensive to initially set up, the cost can be recovered through wide distribution of sales. FB/MGS/09

Page 11: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UWelding This is a permanent form of joining metal. Extreme heat is used in a small localised area to melt the surface of the metals being joined. A filling rod is used to flood the gap with molten metal and when cooled, will form a permanent bond. Welding is a specialist skill if done manually, however automated systems can be set up to produce long welds or welds in awkward areas.

USteam bending It is possible to bend wood to form a curve. The selection of a suitable timber is first, not all woods are suitable. Ideally, birch, ash, oak and beech can be chosen. The wood is soaked with hot steam, to encourage it to be more flexible. While in this condition the wood is bent in a former (jig). It maybe held in this bent position or glued into shape. Steam bending demands a craftsman and this is often reflected in the high cost of the product. Steam bending is not an ideal process for mass production, due to the high use of labour. However, it is possible to semi-automate steam bending to batch produce furniture. FB/MGS/09

Page 12: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

ULamination Steam bending thick solid timber is almost impossible. To achieve a bend thin layers are bent and glued together. This is known as lamination. A simple example of a laminated wood would be plywood. Consisting of veneers (thin layers of wood) glued together. USpindle moulding

To cut decorative mouldings on a large scale a horizontal spindle moulder is used. This is operated by a highly skill woodworker. The cutters are inter- changeable to cut a variety of moulding shapes.

Page 13: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UCAD / CAM In our consumer age the market place demands an evermore varied selection of high quality products. Designers must quickly respond to the demand for high standards in workmanship and efficiency. Using Computer aided design and computer aided manufacture a designer can achieve these goals. Benefits of CAD / CAM to the designer:

Designs can be quickly developed and modified. Designs can be modelled and tested.

Design ideas can be sent electronically to anywhere in the world instantly. Design proposals can be illustrated for sale to the client.

Benefits of CAD / CAM to the Manufacturer:

If design and manufacture are integrated into one system, production should be quick, economical and easily modified.

Manufacturing standards can be ensured between factories, if similar CAD systems are being used.

Accuracy and high quality designs can be made ready for production. Benefits of CAD / CAM to the consumer:

New designs can be developed quickly to meet the demand of consumers. Accurate, high quality products can be quickly manufactured. Helps ensure a wide distribution of products.


Page 14: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Modelling Integral to the success of a design of a product is making a model. This can be done in the workshop or developed on computer. UBenefits of modelling to the designer

With sketch models mechanical parts can be developed and tested (hinges, lids etc).

Sizes can be determined to suit ergonomic considerations. The aesthetics can be explored and developed. 2D ideas can be fully evaluated in their 3D form. A block model can be used to help sell the product to the client.

UBenefits of modelling to the manufacturer

Models can be used to help the manufacturer tool up for production. A 3D model will improve the understanding of the manufacturer, leading to

a successful product. UBenefits of modelling to the client

A client will be given a strong impression of what the final product will look like.

A model will enable the client to test and evaluate moving pats of the design, specifically ergonomics.

To help convince the client to buy the design. UTypes of models

Sketch models: Simple and quick to produce they are used to test and evaluate a specific design factor e.g. the size of a mobile phone to suit the ergonomics of the hand.

Block models: Fully finished models but without the technology. The block

model gives a very good impression of what the product might look like.

Prototypes: Fully realised models, fully working models. Used to test and evaluate the product before mass production.

CAD models: This type of model is growing in use within the design industry. Models are quick to produce, easy to modify and manufacture. A CAD model can be reproduced many times and distributed world wide, without the need to print the design. FB/MGS/09

Page 15: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UMaterials used in modelling Almost anything! There is no limit to what can be used or reused, remember what may seem like junk can be re-worked into a model to give a new look to a product.

Design Factors Try not to think of design factors as an isolated aspect of design with little relevance to the development of a design. Rather consider design factors as being very wide ranging and with relevance to the stages in the design process. Design factors need to be considered at these main stages of the design process:

Design analysis. Writing a specification. Developing a design. Synthesising a design idea. Evaluating the success of a product.

What are the most common design factors?

Function: The features the design offers, usually technological. Performance: How well it functions, how well the design features work.

Safety: Physical and environmental. Ergonomics: Physiological, psychological and anthropometrically.

Cost: Over heads, labour, marketing, distribution, profit.

Materials: Renewable, recyclable, finite, environmental issues.

Aesthetic: Styling, colour choice, form v’s function, texture, gender bias.

Obsolescence: Life span, replacements, maintenance, disposal.

Quality issues: quality control, British and European safety standards, Kite mark.


Page 16: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Design factors explained

UErgonomics: Physiological – This refers to the strength, weakness, dexterity, agility, mobility, or range of movement a person has. These factors vary from person to person for different reasons: age, injury and gender. Psychological – This refers to the intellectual and emotional capacity of an individual. Designers will consider, intelligence, mood, feeling, likes and dislikes when designing for people. It is possible to suggest changes in mood, feelings and engender likes or dislikes through use of colour, shape or form. When producing instructions for self-assembly furniture consideration should be given to the intelligence of the user. Anthropological data – This refers to the data gathered on human sizes. To make a product fit a person(s), it is essential that the designer has a knowledge of human sizes. Information on the variation in sizes is shown as a percentage: 5th%le, 50th%le and 95th%le known as the design range and refers to the range of the population we design for. Variations in human sizes are because of gender, age and ethnic origin. UQuality issues: Consumer – Any new product should carry a guarantee that it will perform as it should. To ensure that the customer is satisfied by their purchase, the product will have gone through a Quality control stage during manufacture. This Quality control stage is often indicated by placing a label or mark on the product. The British kite mark is made up of the letters B, S and I, which is short for UBritish Standards Institute U and signifies Uquality assured U. Often the company logo or company name is enough to indicate that the product has met quality control standards and is a worthy purchase. For example Rolls Royce cars (RR), is recognised as a high quality car manufacturer. If the customer is not satisfied with the performance of the product it may be possible to have the product replaced or money returned. FB/MGS/09

Page 17: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Manufacturer – Essential to customer satisfaction and maintaining customer loyalty is the responsibility of the manufacturer to produce high quality goods. The manufacturer must use suitable materials and production methods to ensure high quality products. During production the manufacturer must set up “checking stages” where the product is evaluated. If it is not right, then it will be returned up the production line to be fixed, or removed from the system.

Generating ideas To kick start the creative process designers can use techniques to generate ideas.

UMood board or life style board: U A collage of images are gathered and usually pasted together to form a stimulating source. Colours, shapes and textures can be used to assist in the creation of new ideas.


“A product being checked on a

production line.”

Page 18: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UMorphological analysis: U A number of relevant titles are posted at the top of a page. Under each title random words are listed. By then mixing words from each column a new concept can be found.

“Design for clock”

UThemes U UMaterials U USize U UProduction method Sport Plastic To fit a shelf Injection mould Star wars Glass A3 size Casting Nature Wood Pocket size Saw and file By mixing words from each column a wide variety of starting points can be achieved. UBrainstorming: U This is a group activity, usually initiated at the beginning of

a design project. The brief may be discussed by the design team and a specification developed. Keys to a successful brainstorming session:

1. Everyone is expected to contribute. 2. There is no wrong answer as long as responses are aimed to develop ideas. 3. It is desirable to have a group of diverse contributors. 4. A summary of the meeting should be taken.

The design team A product is never created by one single person (designer), rather it is a team of experts who will contribute their opinions to help develop the product from an idea to reality. Below are some worth mentioning, though the list of consultants is never exhausted. UMembers of the design team:

Designer Client Ergonomist Aesthetics (stylist) Materials expert Technology expert Manufacturer

Accountant Marketing manager


Page 19: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UDesigner The work of the designer is very broad and his or her role in the development of a design will mean co-ordinating all the other members of the design team. Primarily, a designer will discuss the brief, help produce a product specification, generate ideas, synthesis ideas into a solution, produce models and prepare the solution for manufacture, eventually evaluating the success of a prototype and making modifications if necessary. UClient One who initiates the brief and has the desire to hire a designer to produce a new product. He or she will probably commit money and their own ideas to the project. The client can be involved at any stage of the design process to advise and confirm that the project is heading in the right direction. Ultimately, the client should reap the financial rewards when the product successfully reaches the market. UErgonomist An ergonomist will give specific advice on three ergonomic areas: Anthropometric data (on human dimensions), Physiological information (On human movement, strength and dexterity) and on Psychology (feelings, mood, intelligence, habits, likes and dislikes). Applying these factors to the design of a product should ensure it is suitable for people to use. UAesthetics (stylist) It is true to say that first appearances can influence the buyer. Where there is so much competition from similar products, it is necessary for our design to catch the eye of the buyer before the competition. To achieve this edge a stylist can be hired to advice on a number of aesthetic issues: Colour choice, styling, texture, proportion, balance of shape, form and colour, trends and fashions. UMaterials expert We demand products to be more durable, hard wearing, flexible, colour fast and stronger. Common raw materials: wood and metal still have their place, but composites (mixtures) of plastic or man made materials are the most common today. Designers need experts in the field of materials to ensure that the product will perform as it should. UTechnology expert The technology, now common place in many house hold products (micro waves, flat screen TV’s and PC’s), was unheard off twenty years ago. Designers rely on technologists to provide technological opportunities which will advance the development of their design ideas. FB/MGS/07

Page 20: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UManufacturer A product will only come to life through the efforts of the manufacturer. The manufacturer will be involved in the design process at many points. At the research stage: when the designer will want to know how it is possible to realise the ideas on paper. At the planning stage: When the manufacturer will take the design proposal and plan how it will be made (manufacturing and production methods). Finally, the manufacturer will be responsible for the production and quality control of the product before it goes to the customer. UAccountant Controlling budgets, wages, electricity bills, rent of office space, purchase of materials, taxation, profits, paying for distribution are known as overheads. It is a big responsibility to balance the books and should be given to an expert in the field of finance and economics. An essential member of the design team who will take on the responsibility of such jobs will be the accountant. UMarketing manager For the new product to compete in the market place, it will be advertised and promoted. The role of the marketing manager is to survey the public to assess the demand for the product and then advertise and promote the arrival of the new product. Always watchful for the decline of a product, the marketing manger will look for the chance to promote a new product.

Technology The use of technology (micro electronics, computer control) plays a big role in the design of modern products. Most everyday products use technology. There are a few terminologies you must be familiar with. Technological push. Market (consumer) pull. Technological innovation. Obsolescence. Miniaturisation

UTechnological push Where a specific U technologyU has been invented, it can be Uapplied to other design situations U. For example computer systems developed by NASA and assisted astronaughts to travel into space are now household personal computer systems.

“Technological development pushes the designer towards new ideas.” FB/MGS/09

Page 21: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UMarket pull UWhere the consumer creates a demand for a new product, U the designer must respond with new designs. For example the market demands portable music systems that are hassle free and have a large capacity for music storage. The designer responds be inventing the ipod.

“The consumer demands new products to replace present day products. The designer is driven by these demands.”

UTechnological innovation A designer needs to know about recent technological advances, so that these can be built into new designs. Examples of technological innovations:

UMiniaturisation U allows that designer to produce compact, small products. Consider how small an MP3 player is compared to a CD walkman.

UThe use of IT (information technology – computers). U Products can be

controlled and commanded to perform varied tasks. A new washing machine can detect how heavy the washing is and adjust its speed to reduce bumping and knocking.

UIntegration of systems: U A single product can be made to perform many

tasks. A new mobile phone will not only allow users to talk to each other but, text, take photos, connect to the inter-net and remotely pass information through blue tooth. Compare the performance of to days phones to ones produced ten years ago.

UObsolescence To keep the consumer wanting and relying on new products, designers will make products that will eventually fail. They have a built in life span and this is known as built in obsolescence. A product will become obsolete because:

The materials it is made from will break, tear, wear away, dissolve, fade, wrinkle, or melt. For example a fabric on a seat will wear, fade and tear and will have to be replaced eventually.

Parts of the product will be a made weak or fragile. Typically the battery

compartment cover on a camera has a very weak hinge and after the

Page 22: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

batteries have been frequently replaced the hinge will fall off. The remaining parts of the camera function well, but the user will feel the camera needs replacing.

Impossible to maintain. There may be no replacement parts or they might

be very expensive. Consider how difficult it is to by a black and white film for a camera these days.

The product is superseded (replaced by a better version). The new

product might perform in a similar way to others, but by the virtue of it being new, it is a desirable object.

Goes out of fashion. Designers will use colour, shape and logos to alter

products. As products grow older their shape and colour can become less fashionable. We all understand this if we consider how often we buy new clothes and throw out clothes that are functionally sound, but are out of fashion.

Materials Vital to the development and success of any design is an understanding of the materials a product can be made from. To understand more about a material than just its name we must look at its Properties. What properties can materials have?

Durable: long lasting. Hardwearing: resistant to scratches, bumps and abrasions. Malleable: can be bent and shaped without fracture. Ductile: can be drawn down into a wire or rod. Elastic: can be deformed but return quickly to its original shape. Conductor: will allow electricity or heat to pass though. Insulator: will not allow electricity or heat to pass through. Brittle: Will shatter if struck. Transparent: See through.

Opaque: Blocking light, though allowing some light through. Absorbent: able to draw in water or similar liquid.

Page 23: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

UWood FSC: Forestry stewardship council ensures the timber is taken from a

managed source. Pine: Soft wood used for a large variety of products. The bold grain pattern

is seen as an attractive feature. Not expensive and always available. Available from a renewable source.

Beech: Hardwood commonly available, though expensive. Because of its

durability it is used to for benches, tools and kitchen utensils. Available from a renewable resource.

Teak: Durable and ideally suited to weathering. Very rare however because

it comes from Asia. A rich brown colour. Not available from sustainable sources, therefore expensive.

Plywood: Layers (veneers) are glued on each other to form a solid board.

Plywood is very strong compared to its thickness and can be bent into curves. A very versatile material it can be used for a wide variety of jobs inside and out.


Aluminium alloy: Non ferrous, Light-weight, ductile, malleable, rust proof, is easily melted for casting and is easily cut and machined. An ideal material for a variety of jobs. Commonly available and can be recycled.

Stainless steel: Non ferrous, Durable, clean, shinny, will not rust and is

easily machined. Used in a similar way to aluminium alloy, though stainless steel is tougher than aluminium.


Polypropene (pp): A thermoplastic, clean, flexible, durable, fade resistant, can be Uextruded, injection moulded and vacuumed formed. U Used for many kitchen products. It can be recycled and is a by-product of the oil industry.

Page 24: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS): DO NOT TRY TO LEARN THE LONG

NAME FOR THIS THERMOPLASTIC. A thermoplastic, Strong, light weight, scratch, heat and chemical resistant and can Ube extruded and injection moulded. U Suitable for furniture, car parts, and products that will have to come in contact with wear and tear. Can be recycled.

Araldite (epoxy resin): This is a thermosetting plastic. Two liquid chemicals are mixed together to form a chemical reaction. When both chemicals meet in air they begin to bond and harden. UThis is ideally used as a glue and can be cast into a form. U Cannot be recycled.

Melamine (plastic laminate): This is a thermosetting plastic. Commonly known as formica, it often used as a surface for a worktop. It can be coloured, printed on and textured to look like wood, stone or any material. It is hard wearing and heat resistant though can be easily cracked. It cannot be recycled. UIt is often compression moulded.

Page 25: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)


The design process

There are a logical series of steps a design team will follow to complete a design project. There is no hard and fast set of steps that all designers follow. The design process is often lead by the nature of the project. However there area few stages common to most design projects.

Design brief Analysis of the brief with relevant research Specifications First ideas Developed ideas Synthesis of an idea A solution A working drawing Evaluation

UDesign brief A client will raise a problem for a designer to solve. There are two types of problem:

Open brief: Where there are few restrictions on the direction the design should take.

Closed brief: Where the client insists on restricting the design of the product.

UAnalysis of the brief with relevant research The design team will research design factors relevant to the brief. The information on function, performance, safety, aesthetics or ergonomics will be used to assist in the design of the product. USpecifications The design team will eventually agree on a direction to take the design This agreement or policy will steer the design team towards a solution. A product specification is made up from the design factors researched at an earlier stage. Specifications are made up from the following headings:

Function Performance Safety Ergonomics Cost

Page 26: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Materials choice FB/MGS/09 UFirst ideas A designer will need to open their mind to different possibilities and so the first ideas need to be varied and innovative (inventive). These first ideas are quickly produced and usually lack great detail. UDeveloped ideas One or two of the most promising ideas are further developed to add the detail necessary to become a solution. USynthesis Vitally, a rear solution needs to be checked against the specifications. This process of checking the details of a possible solution against the original specifications is known as synthesis. UA solution This final proposal will be presented to the client for final approval. It may be a manually produced graphic, computer illustration or model. The designer will hope to sell their idea to the client through their illustrations. UA working drawing This technical illustration will contain all the information necessary to make the product. It normally includes: sizes and tolerances, volumes, forms of construction, materials and instructions on how it should be made. UEvaluation Most products need alteration at the early stages of marketing and selling. To decide on what modification, if any need to be made, the product is evaluated (tested) against the specifications once more.

Page 27: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)


Product Design revision notes Please read over these notes before your exam. The following notes are designed to compliment and simplify your text book. Use these notes when you are doing past papers. Contents:

Safety and the environment. Manufacturing systems.

Production methods.


Design factors.

Generating ideas.

The Design Team.



The design process.

Additional topics will be added later.

Page 28: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)


Product Design revision notes to suit Intermediate II

and Higher

January 2009

Name: Class: Teacher:

Page 29: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)


HDPE/LDPE PP ABS Properties of a material Ergonomics Psychology Anthropometrics Physiology Function Performance Aesthetics Balance Proportion Physical safety Environmental safety Quality control Mass production Batch production One off Jit Obsolescence: Why and How? Market research: Expert opinion, User trial,

Page 30: 09 Higher Revision Notes (Recovered)

Technological innovation Market pull Technology push CAD CAM Miniaturisation