Why Light is Right

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  • Why Light is Right? January 2012 Nicolas Meilhan Principal Consultant, Frost & Sullivan January 2014
  • 2 5 major challenges must be taken into account to develop the car of the future : CO2 emissions, end of fossil fuels, air & noise pollution but also congestion and parking 2 global challenges Climate changes End of cheap oil 3 local challenges Pollution Congestion Parking
  • 3 Is the individual electric car really the ultimate transport mode in cities? Of the 3 major problems city faces pollution, traffic and parking, the individual electric car only addresses the pollution locally noise & atmospheric Space occupied in a city street to transport 60 persons
  • 4 Is the electric car the best solution to reduce CO2 emissions? Probably not.... Total CO2 emissions - ICE vs. Electric car, world- Source: CEA http://www.theshiftproject.org/sites/default/files/files/conf_tsp_ve_david_cea_0.pdf
  • 5 Is there anything we could do if we really care about CO2? Reducing car size (and weight) could be an idea.... Total CO2 emissions - ICE vs. Electric car in France - Source: CEA http://www.theshiftproject.org/sites/default/files/files/conf_tsp_ve_david_cea_0.pdf
  • 6 Weight and engine power of the average French car in the last 50 years 10 kg increase per year, 500 kg in 50 years! Engine power multiplied by more than 2,5 Evolution of power, weight and price of a passenger car - 1953 to 2011, France - Source : LArgus Power Average Weight Price in month of minimum salary
  • 7 What is the most energy efficient transport mode? Small frontal area per person, small weight per person, go slowly and steadily, convert energy efficiently Source : David MacKay Amount of scrap metal displaced to transport 1 person: Renault Zo 1,4t 1,4 person 1000 kg per person Renault Twizy 500 kg 1 person 500 kg per person Bus - 20t 60 persons 330 kg per person Scooter 125 150 kg 1 person 150 kg per person Electric bike 20 kg 1 person 20 kg per person Bike - 10 kg 1 person 10 kg par person
  • 8 Productioninbillionsofoil barrelsperyear Reducing CO2 emissions is a good thing but it does not guarantee we will still be able to afford driving our cars in the short term while oil supply is stagnating... and oil prices are surging! Source: Manicore Jean-Marc Jancovici Liquid fuels production -1870-2100 - Future belongs to fuel efficient vehicles as well as low-cost cars (such as Logan) In Japan, 40% of passenger cars sold in 2012- 2 millions in total - were kei-cars small cars with length limited to 3,5 m and engine power limited to 660 cc Reducing energy consumption is even better!
  • 9 Power to compensate mechanical losses Power to compensate aerodynamic losses What consumes energy when we drive? At lower speeds in cities mechanical losses, which are correlated to vehicle weight, have the biggest impact on the energy consumption of vehicles Power required to compensate mechanic & aerodynamic friction forces Source : Gregory Launay - www.gnesg.com Accelerations, which is increasing the speed of a given mass, is what requires the most energy when driving in a urban environment Power Speed
  • 10 How to reduce cars fuel consumption? 2 ways increase the energy efficiency or reduce car weight Fuel consumption of vehicles depends on the amount of energy required to move the vehicle as well as the powertrain energy efficiency. To decrease the fuel consumption, one can either: Reduce losses (increase the energy efficiency with an hybrid power train for example) Reduce the amount of energy required (with a lighter car for example). Source : Gregory Launay www.gnesg.comCO2 emissions Energy The red arrow represents the path that car markers have followed up to now which in most of the time increased the energy consumption of the car although it reduced its CO2 emissions An energy efficient approach would make a lot of sense in the future
  • 11 Peugeot BB1 Rex Hybrid Air 1 L /100km Impossible? Fuel consumption of a 600 kg electric car with a small range extender is as low as 1 L/100 km Fuel consumption of a car vs. weight and energy efficiency - Weight(kg) Tank to wheel energy efficiency (%) Source : Gregory Launay - www.gnesg.com
  • 12 An electric Peugeot BB1 fitted with a small range extender is probably the urban car of the future with a fuel consumption as low as 1 L/100 km and a total range of 300 km, in line with customer expectations Technical Specification Peugeot BB1 EV Peugeot BB1 Rex EV Weight 600 kg 565 kg Engine Power & Torque 15 kW 320 N.m Battery size 12 kWh 3 kWh Battery weight 100 kg 25 kg * Battery price 4,800 1,200 ** Electric range 120 km 30 km Electric consumption 10 kWh/100km Total range 120 km 300 km Range extender : type, size, power - 2 cylinders, 0.25 L 15 kW Fuel tank (L) - 10 L Range extender weight - 40 kg Range extender price - 3,500 Price 14,800 14,700 * Battery weight= 8.5 kg/kWh ** Battery price = 400/kWh 4 seats Length = 2,5 m Width = 1,6m Top speed 90 km/h Range 120 km 600 kg including 100 kg batteries Peugeot BB1 (2009)
  • 13 How the car of the future looks like in an energy constrained world? 4 seats, a weight of 600 kg & an hybrid powertrain Source : Matthieu BARREAU & Laurent BOUTIN , Rflexions sur lnergtique des vhicules routiers Specification of the car of the future 4 seats vehicle Weight of 600 kg (150 kg / person) Hybrid powertrain Fuel consumption of 1,5 L/100 km at 90 km/h Fuel consumption