Presentation by Dr. Mitchell Olszewski, at Drive Oregon Monthly Event on November 7, 2013.
Text of Oak Ridge National Labs - Automotive / Electric Vehicle Capabilities
ORNL Automotive PEEM Capabilities Mitchell Olszewski Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented to Drive Oregon November 7, 2013
All of the Above The present ORNL R&D Program Accelerating electrification Wireless power transfer Advanced battery materials, processing, and modeling Battery manufacturing R&D Fuel Cells Efficient vehicles Alternative Lightweighting fuels Advanced Renewable combustion/ fuels for electric power advanced train engines technology Drop-in Trucks as well biofuels for as autos legacy cars Sustainability analysis Natural gas Intelligent systems and operations Efficient operations in commercial vehicles Data for decisionmaking Managing congestion Communications New technologies and processes for: Safe, secure, and affordable vehicles for passengers and freight Domestic production of transportation fuel Reducing environmental impacts of transportation Predictable, reliable transport schedules
We support two national GovernmentIndustry Partnerships in Transportation Partners: Associate Members at the Technical Level www.vehicles.energy.gov/about/partnerships/ usdrive.html
Power electronics lab expands wireless charging and WBG evaluations Stationary and dynamic wireless power transfer technology at the prototype vehicle scale. Recent award from DOE for further development. Performance verification of new WBG devices; new power electronics topologies and packages that make full use of WBG attributes.
Vehicle Systems Integration Lab unique in DOE system Highly flexible powerpack research lab large enough for HD vehicles Current CRADA partner Meritor with participation from Cummins Hybrid powertrain development Integrates engine and emission data with modeling, simulation, and analysis Support R&D to accelerate calibration methods Enables system-level research for advanced combustion, electric drive, controls, and fuels research within applicable emissions constraints.
Battery Manufacturing Facility, companion labs Exceptional capabilities will yield success in energy storage Lower cost, faster manufacturing methods for Li-ion. Successes emerging. Improved materials Modeling for better design and systems performance Neutron beam studies New chemistries like Li-S Non-mobile applications Rechargeable battery Voltage: 3.7-4.5V Capacity: 100mAh-7Ah
Defining Strengths in Intelligent Transportation Systems Cars that think new sophistication of vehicle controls Cyber-security Big data sciences, managing and using the data load from connected vehicles (V2x) Increasing vehicle autonomy Wireless charging Sustainable Communities Strategies, analysis, next version of FE.gov
Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) A great resource and partner to Transportation There is a manufacturing element in biomass and fuel cell programs in EERE. Focus on additive manufacturing, lightweight materials processing, carbon fiber. User program in place. Co-located battery manufacturing lab. Additive manufacturing (part photo below) Processing functional materials, light metals Carbon fiber and composites, links to CFTF
Initial success with HFIR imaging beam Neutron imaging complements optical and x-ray methods Current focus on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) Improve understanding of regeneration behavior Improving understanding of ash build-up Aids validation of full-scale modeling EGR cooler fouling project enhanced with neutron imaging and data reconstruction Full size coolers imaged at HFIR Expanding role in diesel fuel injectors Internal and external dynamics, and their relationships Cavitation and durability issues Imaging experiments with battery processes. Augments diffraction experiments at VULCAN beam.
Engaging high-performance computing to accelerate design and deployment New user project business model offers advantages to industry for proprietary work Collaboration with Ford examines stochastic and deterministic processes that drive cycle-to-cycle instabilities. Collaborations with GM to improve the understanding and design optimization of gasoline fuel injector hole patterns. Open architecture software for computer aided engineering for batteries to facilitate rapid battery design and prototyping by integrating battery modeling components. T 312.6 301.6 Highly-resolved simulations of cylindrical cell with coupled electrochemical, electrical, and thermal processes showing temperature distribution in the cell.
PEEM R&D Capabilities Power Electronics Circuit Topologies Integrate functionality and reduce capacitance Packaging Increase efficiency and improve heat removal Wide Bandgap Devices Increase efficiency and temperature tolerance Charging Wireless charging for static and dynamic applications Advanced Manufacturing New designs possible Electric Motors Non-Permanent Magnet Motors Eliminate costly rare earth magnet material Advanced Materials Use for laminations, etc. to improve efficiency
Inverter Development Addresses Near Term Application Leading to Transformational Minimal Changes from OEM way of business for near-term Segmented inverter can be applied now with minor winding changes in motors (reduces capacitors by 60%) Changes from OEM way of business for transformational Current Source Inverter reduces capacitance requirement by 90%, decreases cost by eliminating needs for diodes and integrating boost function and charger into inverter Near- to Mid-term application: need multiple sources for reverse blocking IGBTs Transformational: use WBG frequency and efficiency to reduce cost ZCSI adds charging functionality to CSI Reactive Power Inverter and other inverter concepts take advantage of new switches and materials
Planar_Bond_All Power Module Characterization PBA Module 200 500 450 Vce(PB)=72V 160 400 140 350 120 Ice 100 Vce 300 250 80 200 60 150 40 100 20 Voltage (V) Current (A) Wire Bond Module Vce(WB)=156V 180 Advancement of PBA packaging technology and power modules: 50 0 0 500 1000 1500 0 2000 Time (nS) 0.6 Thermal Resistance ja,sp 0.4 29.1% 0.2 0 Specific Thermal resitance (Cm2.C/W) NissanLeaf 0.52 ToyotaPrius10 PlanarBondAll 0.471 0.334 Decreased package thermal resistance by 30%; Decreased package parasitic electrical inductance by 75%, and electric resistance by 90%; Reduced the major packaging manufacturing steps from five (5) to two (2); Achieved more than 30% volume, and weight reduction.
Novel Flux Coupling Motor Without Permanent Magnets Status Objectives Develop a traction motor without rare earth permanent magnets (PMs) achieving specific power and power density similar to PM machines but at lower cost and with higher efficiency. Significant advances have been accomplished in the simulation and design proving the feasibility of meeting DOEs 2020 motor power density target. Work is ongoing to reduce costs and volume to achieve 2020 targets. A breakthrough on the mechanical design was achieved allowing the rotor to safely operate at 14,000 RPM. Projected Benefits Concept achieves the benefits of PM machines without rare earth magnets - Reducing dependency on China for rare earth materials - 20% cost reduction, based on present material costs - 3% overall efficiency increase due to adjustable field - Free from temperature restrictions of PM materials Camry Novel Machine 2020 Target Max. power output 70 kW (tested) 115 kW (computed) 55 kW Weight 36.3 kg 55.7 kg 34.38 kg Volume 13.9 Liters 13.6 Liters* 9.65 Liters kW/kg 1.9 kW/kg 2.1 kW/kg 1.6 kW/kg kW/l 5.0 kW/l 8.5 kW/l 5.7 kW/l Power factor 0.61 1.00 0.75 1.00 Cost **10.7 $/kW ( $749 for 70 kW) ***6.1 $/kW ( $702 for 115 kW) 4.7 $/kW ( $259 for 55 kW)