Infrastructure Issues for Electric Vehicle Deployment in Ireland
Conor GarriganESB Networks
Generation :ESB PG plus independent generatorsTransmission TSO: EirgridDistribution DSO: ESB NetworksSupply : ESB Customer Supply ( PES) plus independent Suppliers
What does this mean for the consumer?
Consumers have a direct relationship with both ESB Networks and their chosen supplier
ESB Networks Supplier
Work ProcessesCommercial arrangements
Focusing on the first element Network connection
Where do we expect to have charging points
Domestic On Street Car Parks
Shopping Centres, Offices, Apartment blocks
What are the expected charging requirements.
Charge Functional Need Power (kW)Standard 100% 3
Emergency 24km 25in 10mins
Fast 80% 120in 10mins
EV infrastructure what do we need
Network connection Charging Equipment ICT Platform
Can I charge my EV at home ? We already have 2M connections
Typical charge rate available 3kwh
This should be sufficient for most batteries on an overnight charge.
So the answer is Yesbut with limitations
Battery Technology rapidly improving
Higher capacity batteries with shorter charging times
Increased demand for three phase charging
Battery Capacity kWh
G Wiz SMARTFor two
Volt BYD F6 A classEV
Battery Capacity kWh
So whats the impact of home charging on the Network
As EV penetration increases , we could find that the Low Voltage network and potentially the supply levels to houses will need to be reinforced and increased.
Typical system peak is between 5-7 pm, an appropriate mechanism for managing EV charging over this period would be required.
But thats all part of the normal management of the network.
I forgot to charge my car at home On street
Expected to be used during day time by commuters.
Existing LV cables in the streets of many urban areas.
Easier to provide higher capacity charging than domestic situation 3 phase supplies available.
Metered connection of up to 45kVA to be distributed to individual charge points.
Opportunity for a flexible arrangement for options of single/three phase and varying capacities .
How would Networks do this
LV cable in street
Charge pointsCharge points
Technical Implications to considerLow penetration of on street chargers do not pose significant risks to the Network stability.
As infrastructure proliferates and especially with the demand for larger and faster charge points this could give rise to system issue such as ,
Harmonics generated by battery chargers Voltage disturbances Capacity problems
These are not new electrical issues and with a planned development of any network they can be overcome.
Some general issues Networks need to consider for on street charging
Access control to charge points
Safety of charge points for users and the general public
Location of pillars and charge points
But once again these are consideration we already deal with in providing electricity infrastructure.
Car parks Typically third party environments
Retrofitting charge points would be dependant on available capacity on existing supply.
Depending on volume it could drive supply upgrades Local substation upgrades Additional circuits within complex.
New builds could design EV charging into their electrical infrastructure link in with Electrical contractors/consultants
Again high density of high capacity charge points could pose Network disturbance issues
What does the consumer want ?
Plentiful and unrestricted charge points
Flexibility Charging regimes Payment options
Choice of suppliers Associated with their domestic account Pre-payment offering Mechanism to pay third parties e.g battery supplier
How do we integrate this??
Networks already provide metering and data services to retail market participants.
The EV proposition has some additional subtleties The charge point is not exclusive to consumers Needs to accommodate multiple suppliers and flexible payment options. Has to be appropriate for our Regulated environment
So it would need,
IT platform to link these elements along with the network imperatives of providing a safe and reliable infrastructure to consumers
There are still some unknowns
Diversity of battery technologies
Would like to see clarity on standardisation of Equipment Charging regimes Communication protocols
Government policies in relation to EV.
Networks Summary We already have the infrastructure for low level charging
at the domestic level
We can provide on street charge point connections in a controlled and planned manner
There are some technical implications for the network and these will need to be analysed and assessed.
What range does this give me, This depends on size , usage and battery
tech but typically,
Peugeot Expert Van 4km/kwh Sedan/Mini E 6km/kwh Mit. MIEV 10km/kwh
Installed minipillar Charge points
Typical locations Fitzwilliam Merrion Sq South