Ferdinand Vebiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672.
Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769.
Cugnots steam wagon
HISTORY OF AUTOMOBILE KARL BENZ
Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.
An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim , Germany by Karl Benz in 1885.
He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888.
A photograph of the original Benz Patent Motorwagen, first built in 1885
His first Motorwagen was built in 1885.
About 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893.
In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine , called a boxermotor in German.
During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced.
Henry Ford was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production .
His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry.
The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902. This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford , beginning in 1914.
HENRY FORD RANSOM E. OLDS
FORD MODEL T
Introduced the moving assembly line and Model T in 1908-1909.
Cost of Model T declined from 7 months of a Ford assembly line workers wages in 1908 to less than 3 months in 1916.
This brought millions of middle-class families into the market for autos.
The car was very simple to drive, and easy and cheap to repair.
By 1920, half the cars in the world were Model T Fords!
Product diversity, options strictly limited by Ford to maximize standardization, production efficiency. (You can have any color car you want, so long as its black.)
FORD MODEL T, 1915 FORD MASHTANG, 2009
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
Sales of automobiles collapsed 1930-32, rebounded slowly.
GM recovered, exceeded late 1920s sales levels by end of the 1930s Ford continued to languish under the increasingly erratic leadership of Henry Ford, who was quite unhinged by the end of the decade.
Ford would have gone bankrupt without WWII.
WORLD WAR II
Military procurement contracts increased demand.
Most of the auto industry in Europe, Japan effectively bombed out of existence.
Technological improvements made during the war were applied to postwar auto production.
Better automatic transmissions
Functional power steering and brakes
FUEL & PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES
Most automobiles in use today are propelled by gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel internal combustion engines.
Known to cause air pollution, climate change & global warming.
Increasing costs of oil-based fuels, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles.
Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles , and electric and hydrogen vehicles which do not release pollution into the air.
Diesel-engined cars have long been popular in Europe with the first models being introduced as early as 1922 by Peugeot .
The main benefit of diesel engines is a 50% fuel burn efficiency compared with 27% in the best gasoline engines.
Many diesel-powered cars can run with little or no modifications on 100% biodiesel and combinations of other organic oils.
GASOLINE (PATROL) ENGINE
Gasoline engines have the advantage over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotational speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high-performance sports cars.
Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has produced improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution.
Most gasoline engine cars can also run on LPG with the addition of an LPG tank and carburetor modifications to add an LPG mixer.
An electric car uses electric motors and motor controllers for propulsion , in place of more common propulsion methods such as the internal combustion engine .
Electric cars are commonly powered by on-board battery packs, and as such are battery electric vehicles (BEVs).
TESLA ELECTRIC POWER ROADSTER
HYBRID ELECTRIC PETROLEUM CARS
When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle.
These encompass such vehicles as the:
Toyota Camry Hybrid
Ford Escape Hybrid
Toyota Highlander Hybrid
Honda Civic Hybrid
HONDA INSIGHT TOYOTA PRIUS
BENEFITS OF AUTOMOBILES
Replacement of horse and carriage.
Economical, safer, smaller, faster (more consistent), more controllable/reliable.
More sanitary - dead horses and manure problems.
Development of mass production and assembly line.
Supply chain economic boom.
MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
Autos themselves and consumables.
One way cars create pollution is by contributing to the amount of ground-level ozone.
Cars also pollute by emitting lead from leaded gasoline.
TOP 20 MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCING COUNTRIES IN 2008 Motor vehicle production (1000 units)
Top motor vehicle manufacturing companies by volume 2008