History of photography

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2. photographs.. preserve personal memoriesinform us of public events 3. they provide a means of identificationand of glamorisation.. 4. views of far-off places on Earthand in space 5. as well as microscopic scenes from inside and outside the human body 6. Many specialised commercial categories, including fashion, product, and architectural photography, also fit under the broad umbrella that defines photographys function in the world today. 7. To mid-19th-century observers, photography seemed capable of capturing the world whole rather than describing and interpreting it as drawing did. They called it the mirror with a memory.Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes who coined the phrase Mirror with a MemoryBut 20th-century critics have argued whether photography is indeed a direct trace of experience, like the mark of a footprint in the sand, or instead a reflection of the photographers particular point of view. 8. Photographys role in the visual arts is also a matter of debate. From the start, the photographers camera was seen as a challenger to the painters brush. Its ability to effortlessly render tones, detail, and perspective effectively put an end to the practice of certain forms of painting, such as portrait miniatures. 9. It is believed today that photography created an impetus for painters to forsake straightforward description in favour of more interpretive or abstract styles, such as impressionism, cubism, and abstract expressionism. 10. Before mentioning the stages that led to the development of photography, there is one amazing, quite uncanny prediction made by a man called de la Roche (1729- 1774) in a work called Giphantie. In this imaginary tale, it was possible to capture images from nature, on a canvas which had been coated with a sticky substance. This surface, so the tale goes, would not only provide a mirror image on the sticky canvas, but would remain on it. After it had been dried in the dark the image would remain permanent. The author would not have known how prophetic this tale would be, only a few decades after his death. 11. "Photography" is derived from the Greek words photos ("light") and graphein ("to draw")The word was first used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. It is a method of recording images by the action of light, or related radiation, on a sensitive material. 12. camera obscura the camera obscura developed out of the simple, lens-less 'pinhole camera' which was used, perhaps a 1,000 years ago, to project an image of the sun and safely view eclipses. The incorporation of a lens in the seventeenth century (or maybe even earlier) produced a much brighter image and the camera obscura, as we know it today, was born. 13. the camera obscura is based on a simple principle. If you go into a dark room (thus the name, the Latin camera, "room", and obscura, "dark") and punch a small hole in the wall, the image outside will be projected inside. Light from only one part of a scene will pass through the hole and strike a specific part of the back wall. The projection is made on paper on which an artist can then copy the image if desired.The principle of the camera obscura can be demonstrated with a rudimentary type, just a box with a hole in one side. 14. During the Victorian era many seaside resorts had a camera obscura which was usually set up in a small octagonal building near the beach or on the pier. Inside, the visitor could watch a moving colour picture of the view outside. 15. The Music Lesson. 1600sThere is speculation that Vermeer used a camera obscura for his paintings 16. Photography as a useable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photograph was an image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicphore Nipce. However, the picture took eight hours to expose, so he went about trying to find a new process.Nicphore Nipce's earliest surviving photograph, c. 1826. This image required an eighthour exposure, which resulted in sunlight being visible on both sides of the buildings. 17. Daguerreotypes Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. First daguerreotypeNipce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1839, reducing the exposure time down to half an hour. 18. The daguerreotype plate was made by brazing or coating a copper plate with silver - silver being the photographic emulsion.The image was able to capture a very fine, rich detail superb even by today's standards. The technique is still reproduced by devotees today. 19. The low-cost daguerreotype became so popular that, by the end of 1839, Paris newspapers were referring to a new disease called Daguerreotypomania. People were by far the most common photographic subject of the 19th century. Photographic portraits were much less expensive than painted ones, took less of the sitters time, and described individual faces with uncanny accuracy. So great was the sense of presence in these pictures that photographers were often called on to take portraits of the recently deceased, a genre now known as postmortem portraits. 20. The Daguerreotype process, though good, was expensive, and each picture was a once-only affair. That, to many, would not have been regarded as a disadvantage; it meant that the owner of the portrait could be certain that he had a piece of art that could not be duplicated. If however two copies were required, the only way of coping with this was to use two cameras side by side. There was, therefore, a growing need for a means of copying pictures which daguerreotypes could never satisfy. 21. Different, and in a sense a rival to the Daguerreotype, was the Calotype invented by William Henry Fox Talbot, which was to provide the answer to that problem.the calotype negative provided the first practical method of producing prints on paper from a camera exposure 22. The earliest paper negative we know of was produced in August 1835; it depicts the now famous window at Lacock Abbey, his home. The negative is small (1" square), and poor in quality, compared with the striking images produced by the Daguerreotype process. However, the great advantage of Talbot's method was that an unlimited number of positive prints could be made. By 1840, Talbot had made some significant improvements, and by 1844 he was able to bring out a photographically illustrated book entitled "The Pencil of nature." 23. Interest in daguerreotypes dwindled in Europe after 1851, when English photographer Frederick Scott Archer invented the collodion, or wetplate process. This was a negative-topositive process, but because the negatives were made of smooth glass rather than paper, the collodion process produced much sharper images. 24. Using the collodion method, French painter and photographer Adolphe Disdri in 1854 invented the carte-de-visite, a form of photographic calling card, which soon became the new rage. 25. Photographers using the collodion, or wet-plate, process hauled their large cameras, tripods, and portable darkrooms to the farthest reaches of Europes imperial quest in the years between 1850 and 1870. 26. The Civil War in the United States (1861-1865) was the first war to be thoroughly recorded by photographyMatthew Brady 27. As industrialization came to define Western life in the 19th century, industry employed photography to portray its successes and strengths. For example, in 1857 British photographer Robert Howlett took pictures of the British steamship Great Eastern, the largest vessel of its day. 28. In addition to recording the construction of railroads, ships, buildings, and bridges, photography proved useful to medicine and the social sciencesDoctors wanted beforeand-after pictures of wounded Civil War soldiers to study the effects of amputation and invasive surgery 29. Psychologists studied photographs of mental patients in an attempt to visually discern their disorders. Photographers recorded the features of criminals, not only as a means of identification, but also in an effort to identify physical characteristics, which criminologists then believed might correspond with criminal behaviour. 30. The development of faster cameras in the 1870s spurred scientists and others to use photography in the study of human and animal movement. In 1878 Muybridge used a series of photographs of a galloping horse to demonstrate to the world that the animal lifts all four feet off the ground at once. 31. French physiologist Etienne-Jules Marey also followed Muybridges example and devised a special camera to record sequential photographs on a single plate.The resulting photographs showed an echoing trail of images that recorded the subjects movement in both time and space. Marey used this method to develop insights into the flight of birds, human movement, and the workings of the human eye. 32. In the last quarter of the 19th century the camera helped record the plight of the dispossessed, displaced, and overlooked. One of the earliest attempts to document urban poverty was made by Scottish photographer Thomas Annan, who aimed his camera at the empty, unsanitary alleyways of Glasgow in 1868 City officials commissioned Annans documentation to justify replacement of Glasgows unsavory slums with new development. 33. As photography celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1889, the averageperson was familiar with what photographs looked like and probably kept some at home, but few people took photographs themselves. In addition, most photographs existed as unique originals, because copies were still difficult to make.All this soon changed as a result of two important introductions: the simple-to-use Kodak camera and the halftone printing process. 34. The use of photographic film was pioneered by George Eastman, w