2. Scanography 3. Scanners are typically used to convert flat documents into digital images. Scanography is a photography technique used to take images. A scanner can be used similarly to a digital camera, however the images that a flatbed scanner takes are different to images that come from a digital camera. The imaging head of the scanner gradually builds up an image by the scanner head moving and scanning backwards and forwards below a glass plate. The scanner essentially makes a copy of what is against the glass plate. The scanners dont need a great depth of field. Essentially the only bit of the image thats sharp is the part that touches the glass. This makes it difficult to scan three-dimensional objects. Part of the appeal of scanning three-dimensional objects on a scanner is the fact that depth of field is so restricted. This gives the image of the object an appealing softness. The scanography technique gives a strange effect to images that can only be achieved by this and few other techniques such as the movement technique. It looks like there is some kind of movement because the scanner effect is similar to a camera with a slow shutter speed in some ways. When scanning 3D images you should be careful not to put anything too heavy on the glass or apply too much pressure because the glass plate will most likely break. You should also be careful to ensure that the glass is entirely clean; dust spots can ruin the image that you are trying to create. Some scanners let you scan using 48-bit colour. This will result in a 16 bit scan but you will need to save the scan as a Tiff or PSD and not as a Jpeg file. This will double the file compared to scanning in 24-bit colour. This will result in more scope for alteration in postproduction without a reduction in image quality on programmes such as Photoshop. For the greatest image quality only use a scanning resolution that uses the scanners optics rather than an interpolated resolution. 4. High Speed Photography 5. High speed photography simply means taking a picture of a fast motion and hoping to capture it in the process. High speed photography may refer to either or both of the following meanings. The first is that the photograph itself may be taken in a way that will appear to freeze the motion to capture an image. This requires a sensor with good sensitivity and a very good shuttering system or a fast strobe light. The second meaning is that a series of photographs may be taken at a high sampling frequency or frame rate. The second requires some means of capturing successive frames, either with a mechanical device or by moving data off electronic sensors very quickly. High speed photography is considered fine art because the photographs that come of this technique are spectacular and something that can only be described as art, in itself. High speed photography could also be used as commercial photography; to advertise or promotoe something. The art of high speed photography records kinds of fast-moving objects, documenting things that are normally invisible to the human eye. High speed photography is used in a range of professions for a range of purposes. Scientists use it to study physical movement, to measure phenomena like surface tension and also gravitational effects. The military takes high speed photographs to look at the accuracy of missiles and rockets. It is possible to record what is happening at the very centre of a nuclear explosion. Sports photographers can use high speed photography to shoot fast moving sporting events e.g. car racing at the Gran Prix. However, high speed photographs can also be displayed in art gallers or art books to show the amazing images that can be captured using this technique as an art form. You need a camera with a very fast shutter speed to be able to take high speed photographs. Something like 1/52000th of a second will show something like a boxer throwing a punch in very clear focus, where as a shutter speed of 1/1000th of a second would give the photograph some blur. 6. Light Writing 7. Light writing is a form of stop motion animation. In these images, light is captured using the light painting or light drawing technique and they are put in sequence which creates this optical illusion for the audience. To create this effect in a photograph, a flashlight, glow stick or something that provides light is needed. Then you need a totally dark room or some kind of dark space, a tripod is also useful so that they is no motion blur added into the image. The camera needs to be in manual mode and make the shutter speed something like 30 seconds long. The ISO must be set to something like 100 and the aperture must be wide such as f5.6. Then you are free to take to photograph, you will have 30 seconds or however long you have set the shutter speed for. Light writing, also referred to as light painting is a technique in which exposures are made by moving a hand held light source or it can also be created by moving the camera but pointing it at a stationary light source. There are 3 basic light writing photography techniques. The first in light painting, the second is light drawing and the third is kinetic light painting, but can also be known as camera painting. Light painting is using handheld lights to illuminate and/or colour parts of the subject or scene of the photograph. It requires a slow shutter speed, usually a second or more, depending on what you want to capture. Light painting can take on the characteristics of a traditional painter who works with oils, acrylics etc. Light drawing is shining a light source to essentially draw a picture by shining it directly into the camera lens. This also requires a slow shutter speed e.g. a second or more. Light drawing can take on the characteristics or a quick and rough pencil sketch done my an artist. Kinetic light painting is done by moving the camera. It can also be called camera painting. In a dark space, the camera can be taken off the tripod and used as a paintbrush instead of the light source. This can create abstract artist images.