Art is Us 3: Roman, Early Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque, and Gothic art and architecture

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What does this garden tell us?

and this?

Is there evidencehere of human intervention?

What do we SEE?Inhibition?

Stylized?

Natural?

Spiritual?

Humanism?

Corporeal?

Later?

Similarities with what earlierperiods?What do we see?

TRUE OR FALSE?

Man dominated society.The significance of reality.Corporeality.Nature dominated society.Appearance of reality.Symbolism.Idealized.Human expression.Inhibition. Man as the measure of all. Law of frontality. Classic contrapposto pose. Literal interpretation. Abstraction.What do we see?TRUE OR FALSE?

Man dominated society.The significance of reality.Corporeality.Nature dominated society.Appearance of reality.Symbolism.Idealized.Human expression.Inhibition. Man as the measure of all. Law of frontality. Classic contrapposto pose. Literal interpretation. Abstraction.

Which is more interior oriented?

Parthenon: Greek ClassicPantheon: Roman What are the clues?

An engineering marvel?

Roman SculptureWhat periods ofGreek art influenced these Roman portraits?

ROMAN MURAL

Visual illusions of a 3D world on a 2D surface.

Mythology brought to lifethrough life-likefigures in a 3Dsetting.

Depicting the world as it is or as we would like it to be?Classic or Hellenistic origin?

Compare these portraitsLiteral and true to life?

Worldly concerns?

Idealized?

Transcendental stare?

Spiritual?

First Christian emperor?

Earlier?

Emperor Justinian

Transcendental stare

Stylized symbolism

Perceived spirituality through the luminous mosaics reflective color.

St. Apollinare: Early Christian St. Vitale: Byzantine

Eastern &Western Roman Empire: Ravenna, ItalyContrasting expressions of the Christian Faith

EARLY CHRISTIAN: A Longitudinal PlanAn adaptation of the Roman BasilicaNave (Ship of God) & side aisles.St. Apollinare: Interior

St. Vitale: Byzantine InteriorCentral Plan

Dome & Pendentive

Byzantine ArchitectureDome & Pendentive

Central Plan

Justinian Mural:How does the artistdepict the Emperor?Hint: Concern with hisphysical appearance?

What visual elements support this statement?

With what earlier perioddo we find similar worldviews? What is the worldview of Byzantine art?

More specifically:

Why a solid gold back-ground?

Why do they all look alike?

GOD replacesMAN as themeasure ofall things.

Hagia Sophia: Istanbul/ConstantinopleByzantine ArchitectureInterior motivated

Central orientation

Monumental scale

Dome & Pendentive

Art reflects BELIEFS GIVENS&MAN, the measure of all thingsGOD, the creator of all things

Man dominates his natural surroundings.

Externally motivated architecture.God dominates both Man & nature.

Internally motivated architecture.

ROMANESQUE

A feudal society

Ruled by

A LORD.

Judged by

A LORD.

What do these structures tell us about Medieval Man?

Conques Cathedral, FranceHeavy

Massive

Protective

Instructive

Inhibited

Wheel of fortuneMedieval devotion in fear of THE FINAL JUDGMENT

THE LAST JUDGMENT

HELLDepictingImaginative

Fearful

Everlastingconsequences

Romanesque limitations

Height

Window size

Refinement

Otherworldly

Interior motivated spacemade possible with thebarrel vault composed of a series of Roman arches.

Limited window area.

Heavy, massive & protective

Gothic ArchitectureAn encyclopedia of Christian belief

Dematerializing

The light of God in an Age of Faith

GothicFrom JUDGE to

TEACHER

A changing relationship between Man and his spiritual and secular beliefs.

A belief that all is the work of God

A spiritual environmentin which the light of Godand architectural magicbring new meaning to oursense of space.

Interior motivated

Spiritual & Secular

Soaring heaven boundA balancing act ofopposing forces. Theflying buttress pressesin against walls whichpush outward.

A lace-like exterior designed to makethe interior experiencepossible.

Which came first, the architectureinnovations or the Age Of Faith whichsought a tangible expression?Distributing great weight through innovative engineeringPointed arch.Cross-ribbed vaultingFlying buttressGothic Innovations

From feudal society to sovereign nationART INVOKESA RELATIONSHIP

Anticipating the Renaissance